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Vincenzo Fogliano » 2.Water and interactions in water solution


Water and interactions in water solution

Many foods as well as body cells contain mainly water.

A knowledge of water and of the forces acting in water solution is the basis to understand in a phenomena occurring in foods and in the cells.

Water structure


Hydrogen bond between two water molecules


Hydrogen bond in water solutions between different organic compounds


Van der Waals interactions

Non covalent interactions between non charged molecules.

Non covalent interactions between non charged molecules.


Ions solvations in water solutions


Molecules organize themselves around the solute


Behaviour of oil in water

Which is the driving force of this phenomenon?

Which is the driving force of this phenomenon?


Behaviour of oil in water


Behaviour of oil in water


Behaviour of oil in water


Behaviour of oil in water


Behaviour of oil in water


Behaviour of oil in water


Emulsifiers

These are substances that, due to their peculiar chemical structure, are able to combine two different phases in a stable manner.
They are fundamental to many food preparations.

Emulsifiers


Emulsifiers


Emulsifiers


Emulsifiers


Emulsifiers


Polar and apolar

  • Polar-hydrophilic
  • Apolar-hydrophobic
  • Polar:
    • Charged groups COO- NH3+
    • OH groups (carbohydrates)
  • Apolar:
    • Alkyl chains (CH3-CH2-CH2….)
    • Aromatic rings

HLB scale (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic balance)

  • Scale spans between 1 a 20
  • Hydrophilic emulsifiers have high HLB value
  • Lipophilic emulsifiers have low HLB value
    • Lecitin
    • Mono and diglycerides
    • Sorbitol derivatives
    • Sucrose esters
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