Assume that exist, then

If n is even, we must additionally assume that

In particolar, if f(x) is an algebraic function and f(a) is defined, then

So, in some cases it is possible to compute limits by substituting a for x.

**Exercise 1.** Compute the following limit

*Solution*. By applying the limit laws repeatedly:

**Exercise 2**. Compute the following limit

*Solution*. Given function is an algebraic function; thus:

Finding limits by algebraic manipulation:

**Exercise 3**. Compute the following limit

*Solution*. Given function is an algebraic function and substituting x = 1, we see that both numerator and denominator go to zero (x = 1 is a root). Notice that in this case it is possible to cancel the fraction by an algebraic manipulation

**Exercise 4.** Compute the following limit

*Solution*. Given function is an algebraic function and substituting x = 3, we notice that 3 is a root of numerator and denominator.

Factoring the numerator and the denominator, we get:

We recall that the notation

means that the values of f(x) can be arbitrarily large by taking x sufficiently close to α but not equal to α.

We recall that the notation

means that the values of f(x) can be arbitrarily large negative by taking x sufficiently close to α but not equal to α.

**Examples**.

**Exercise 5.** Let the function and compute

for each α at which f is not continuous.

*Solution*. Factoring the denominator, we get the following factors (x-1)(x-2), where in 1 and 2 the assigned function f is not continuous. We can record the signs of the factors as follows.

Then

For example, as x → 1^{-} , the numerator approaches 2, and the denominator approaches 0 while remaining positive. So the limit is + ∞.

We recall that

We recall that:

- The product of a finite limit and an infinite limit is infinite if the finite limit is not 0. That is

We recall that:

- The product of two infinite linits is infinite. That is:

We recall that:

- The quotient of a finite limit by an infinite linit is zero. That is:

We recall that:

- Limits of the form:

are indeterminate. There is no rule for evaluating such a form; the limit must be examined more closely.

- Limits of the form L/0 are also indeterminate and these limits for example can be evaluated as follows:

We recall that:

- If n is a positive integer number. Then

**Exercise 6**. Compute the limit if it exists.

*Solution*. Factoring out the largest power of x from the numerator and denominator, we get:

**Observation**. When find limits of algebraic expressions at infinity, look at the highest degree terms.

**Exercise 7.** Compute the limit if it exists.

*Solution*. As we noticed in the observation, when we have to find limits of algebraic expressions, we can look only at the highest degree terms. In this case, the numerator can be considered as follows:

Then, we expect that the limit of assigned function is .

In any case we can solve the assigned limit factoring out the largest power of x from the numerator and factoring out the largest power of x from the denominator under the root.

**Exercise 8**. Find the limit if it exists.

*Solution*. Looking directly only at the highest degree terms, we get:

**Exercise 9**. Find the limit if it exists.

*Solution*. Looking directly only at the highest degree terms, we get:

**Exercise 10**. Find the limit if it exists.

*Solution*. This limit is of the form ∞ – ∞ which indeterminate and there is no rule for evaluating such a form; so we rationalize the numerator to get an expression that we can use the limit laws on:

*1*. Functions and their graph. One–one and onto functions. Composite and inverse functions.

*2*. Linear inequalities. Systems of linear inequalities

*3*. Polynomial inequalities. Rational inequalities. Absolute-value inequalities

*6*. Differentiation. Derivative rules, the chain rule.

*7*. Application of differentiation: L'Hospital's Rule

*8*. Vertical, Horizontal and Slant asymptotes

*9*. Higher Order Derivatives. Applications of differentiation: local and absolute extremes of a function

*10*. Curve Sketching

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