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Maurizio Paolillo » 7.Instruments for X-ray and γ-ray Astrophysics – Part II


Contents

  1. X and γ-ray telescopes:
    • Grazing incidence mirrors.
    • Modulators: temporal and spatial modulators, coded masks.
    • Compton telescopes.
  2. Background discrimination:
    • Event grades.
    • Anti-coincidence shields.
    • Pulse shape discrimination.

Imaging techniques

High energy photons cannot be focused as their low energy counterparts due to their large penetrating power. Different approaches are thus needed: Grazing-incidence mirrors, Modulators, Compton telescopes.

High energy photons cannot be focused as their low energy counterparts due to their large penetrating power. Different approaches are thus needed: Grazing-incidence mirrors, Modulators, Compton telescopes.


Incidence grating mirrors

The Snell law allows to use large incidence angles, greater than the critical angle at which radiation is totally reflected) to focus X-ray photons:

sin θ1/sin θ2 =n2/n1θcrit=arcsin(n2/n1)


Modulators

Modulating aperture telescopes: spatial and temporal modulation.

Modulating aperture telescopes: spatial and temporal modulation.


Coded masks

Coded masks telescopes are based on the idea of imaging through a ‘pinhole’ but with larger collecting area to increase the efficiency.

Coded masks telescopes are based on the idea of imaging through a 'pinhole' but with larger collecting area to increase the efficiency.


Coded masks imaging

Imaging with coded masks is a process that requires deconvolution through the mask pattern. The deconvolved image may not be unique and an optimal mask design will minimize the degeneracy.

Imaging with coded masks is a process that requires deconvolution through the mask pattern. The deconvolved image may not be unique and an optimal mask design will minimize the degeneracy.


Coded masks: field of view

The ability to reconstruct the image of the sky depends on the ratio between the size of the mask and the size of the detector.

Often a limited detector size or resolution can be associated with dithering techniques.

Schemes of detector illumination by coded masks.

Schemes of detector illumination by coded masks.


Coded masks: field of view (cont’ed)

Schematic view of a coded mask telescope.

Schematic view of a coded mask telescope.


Coded masks: mask patterns

Left: Examples of coded masks and response patterns to a point source. Right: extreme example of an unusual mask pattern and of the image that can be reconstructed from it.

Left: Examples of coded masks and response patterns to a point source. Right: extreme example of an unusual mask pattern and of the image that can be reconstructed from it.


Temporal modulators

The first X-ray satellites had no focusing capabilities and relied on temporal modulation to infer the source of the incoming radiation.

Modulators could be created through the rotation of the satellite itself around one of its axis (e.g. Uhuru) or through more complex mechanical designs, such as those shown on the right and based on overlapping grids.

Temporal modulator using two overlapping grids.

Temporal modulator using two overlapping grids.

The signal recorded by translating (to) or rotating (bottom) grids.

The signal recorded by translating (to) or rotating (bottom) grids.


Compton telescopes

Compton scattering can be used to design telescopes capable of simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy, especially in the g-ray regime where it is one of the dominant scattering processes.

Compton scattering, followed by photoelectric absorption allows to infer the incidence angle of the incoming photons, once the impact point on each detector and the deposited energy is known.

The sky image reconstruction requires data deconvolution with the scattering pattern.

Schematic view of a Compton telescope.

Schematic view of a Compton telescope.


Background contributions

Energy-loss processes in the passive material surrounding the detectors can alter the spectral signature of the incoming radiation and significantly contribute to the detector background.

The image shows the spectral signature produced by the combined interaction processes occurring in the telescope structure and due to both photons and particles (cosmic rays).


Background suppression: Anti-coincidence shielding

Advantages and disadvantages of anticoincidence shielding.

Advantages and disadvantages of anticoincidence shielding.


Active and passive shielding

Shielding significantly reduces the instrument background, but at the expense of reduced effective area, field of view, increased dead time and payload weight.

Shielding significantly reduces the instrument background, but at the expense of reduced effective area, field of view, increased dead time and payload weight.


Integral γ-ray telescope

Integral telescope structure and its energy sensitivity range, compared to other high energy missions.

Integral telescope structure and its energy sensitivity range, compared to other high energy missions.


Integral detectors

The main Integral detectors.

The main Integral detectors.


Integral main γ-ray detectors

The main Integral detectors and their components.

The main Integral detectors and their components.


Integral: SPI

Characteristics of the SPI detector.

Characteristics of the SPI detector.


SPI anti-coincidence system


Anti-coincidence performance

Description of Integral Anti-coincidence shielding and performance.

Description of Integral Anti-coincidence shielding and performance.


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