Many info at IMARS Web site of the International Maillard Reaction Society
John Hodge: 1914 -1996
Chemist at USDA in Illinois (1941 – 1980)
His proposed mechanism for the chemistry of non-enzymatic browning is largely unchanged after 60 years.
Hodge J E. Dehydrated foods: chemistry of browning reactions in model systems. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1:928-43, 1953.
At high temperature reducing carbonyl react with free amino groups.
Reducing carbonyl usually belongs to glucose or fructose group, but can also be an oxydised fat.
Free amino group is usually on lateral chain of proteins (Lys or Arg) In a few cases free amino acids or ammonia.
The first step is the formation of a Shiff base followed by a complex sequence of dehydratation and rearrangments leading to the formation of colored and flavoured MRPs.
Melanoproteins, melanoidins different Maillard polymers in different products
Melanoidins are present in coffee (soluble) bread (crust) and many other products.
In some cases they are made up mainly of polysaccharides in others by proteins.
Loss of free lysine: nutritional implications.
Role in texture, taste and antioxidant activity.
Behave as dietary fibre.
Acrylamide is formed through MR only from free asparagine.
Potato, cereal (particularly bran), cocoa, coffee.
Correlation between acrylamide biomarkers and incidence of cancer.
In roasted meat heterocyclic amines can be formed from creatine amino acid and sugar.
Only in the burned region.
Heterocyclic amines are potent carcinogenic agents.
10. Sugar properties